二、阅读理解 a 部分:
2021 年考研英语(一)阅读理解 a 解析
how can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail
passenger fares? it has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every january
the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on
those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or
otherwise. this year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower
than last year’s, but it is still well above the official consumer price index
(cpi) measure of inflation.
successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that
the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those
who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. why, the argument goes, should a
car-driving pensioner from lincolnshire have to subsidise the daily commute of a
stockbroker from surrey? equally, there is a sense that the travails of
commuters in the south east, many of whom will face among the biggest rises,
have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the
relatively poor infrastructure of the midlands and the north.
however, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced
some of the worst rail strikes in years. it is all very well train operators
trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers
should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they
are now paying to travel. the responsibility for the latest wave of strikes
rests on the unions. however, there is a strong case that those who have been
worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the
disruption they have suffered.
the government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service
requirement so that, even when strikes occur, services can continue to operate.
this should form part of a wider package of measures to address the long-running
problems on britain’s railways. yes, more investment is needed, but passengers
will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped,
unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or
planned maintenance is managed incompetently. the threat of nationalisation may
have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified
anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.
21. the author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares
a. will ease train operation’s burden.
b. has kept pace with inflation.
c. is a big surprise to commuters.
d. remains an unreasonable measure..
22. the stockbroker in 2 is used to stand for
a. car drivers
b. rail travellers
c. local investors
d. ordinary taxpayers
it is indicated in 3 that train operators
a. are offering compensations to commuters.
b. are trying to repair relations with the unions.
c. have failed to provide an adequate service.
d. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes.
24. if unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face
a. the loss of investment.
b. the collapse of operations.
c. a reduction of revenue.
d. a change of ownership.
25. which of the following would be the best title for the text?
a. who are to blame for the strikes?
b. constant complaining doesn’t work
c. can nationalization bring hope?
d. ever-rising fares aren’t sustainable
【正确答案】21.d 22.b 23.c 24.d 25.d
21.本题的关键词是this year’s increase 和rail passengers
……inflation)，而不是与通货膨胀速度一致(kept pace with
investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use
it)，而不是一般的纳税人(rather than the general taxpayer)。而第二句作者反问道，为什么car-driving
pensioner要补贴stockbroker呢?由此可stockbroker对应的原文中的用铁路的人(those who use it)，即b. rail
3，定位至第三段第二句。该句提到，火车运营商鼓吹他们已经提升了线路，但是乘客支付了相当多的费用，相应地，就应该获得说的过去的服务(a basic level
of service),but一词说明乘客获得的服务并没有运营商鼓吹的那样好。本句与c选项的表述一致，火车运营商没能提供合适的服务(failed to
provide adequate service)。a选项正在给通勤者提供赔偿(are offering compensations to
compensation),即目前没有赔偿，a选项与原文意思相反，故排除。b选项无中生有，选项b正在试图修复与工会的关系(are trying to
repair relations with
have suffered),这里的they指代原文的乘客(those who have been worst affected by industrial
24.题干的关键词是unable to calm down和railway，定位到原文末段末句。该句指出，国有化的威胁(threat of
of ownership)。a选项投资的损失(the loss of investment)，b选项运营的崩溃(the collapse of
operations)，c选项收入的减少(a reduction of revenue),都不符合题意，排除。
last year marked the third year in a row of that indonesia’s bleak rate of
deforestation has slowed in pace. one reason for the turnaround may be the
country’s antipoverty program.
in 2007, indonesia started phasing in a program that gives money to its
poorest residents under certain conditions, such as requiring people to keep
kids in school or get regular medical care. called conditional cash transfers or
ccts, these social assistance programs are designed to reduce inequality and
break the cycle of poverty. they’re already used in dozens of countries
worldwide. in indonesia, the program has provided enough food and medicine to
substantially reduce severe growth problems among children.
but cct programs don’t generally consider effects on the environment. in
fact, poverty alleviation and environmental protection are often viewed as
conflicting goals, says paul ferraro, an economist at johns hopkins
that’s because economic growth can be correlated with environmental
degradation, while protecting the environment is sometimes correlated with
greater poverty. however, those correlations don’t prove cause and effect. the
only previous study analyzing causality, based on an area in mexico that had
instituted ccts, supported the traditional view. there, as people got more
money, some of them may have more cleared land for cattle to raise for meat,
such programs do not have to negatively affect the environment, though.
ferraro wanted to see if indonesia’s poverty-alleviation program was affecting
deforestation. indonesia has the third-largest area of tropical forest in the
world and one of the highest deforestation rates.
ferraro analyzed satellite data showing annual forest loss from 2008 to
2012 — including during indonesia’s phase — in of the antipoverty program — in
7,468 forested villages across 15 provinces and multiple islands. the duo
separated the effects of the cct program on forest loss from other factors, like
weather and macroeconomic changes, which were also affecting forest loss. with
that, “we see that the program is associated with a 30 percent reduction in
deforestation,” ferraro says.
that’s likely because the rural poor are using the money as makeshift
insurance policies against inclement weather, ferraro says. typically, if rains
are delayed, people may clear land to plant more rice to supplement their
harvests. with the ccts, individuals instead can use the money to supplement
whether this research translates elsewhere is anybody’s guess. ferraro
suggests the importance of growing rice and market access. and regardless of
transferability, the study shows that what’s good for people may also be good
for the value of the avoided deforestation just for carbon dioxide emissions
alone is more than the program costs.
26. according to the first two paragraphs, cct programs aim to
facilitate health care reform.
b. help poor families get better off.
c. improve local education systems.
d. lower deforestation rates.
27. the study based on an area in mexico is cited to show that
a. cattle rearing has been a major means of livelihood for the poor.
b. cct programs have helped preserve traditional lifestyles.
c. antipoverty efforts require the participation of local farmers.
d. economic growth tends to cause environmental degradation.
28. in his study about indonesia, ferraro intends to find out
a. its acceptance level of ccts.
b. its annual rate of poverty alleviation.
c. the relation of ccts to its forest loss.
d. the role of its forests in climate change.
29. according to ferraro, the cct program in indonesia is most valuable in
a. it will benefit other asian countries.
b. it will reduce regional inequality.
c. it can protect the environment.
d. it can boost grain production.
30. what is the text centered on?
a. the effects of a program.
b. the debates over a program.
c. the process of a study.
d. the transferability of a study.
【正确答案】26.b 27.d 28.c 29.c 30.a
26.题干的关键是是前两段(first two paragraphs)和cct program aim，由此可定位第二段的第二句话，其中be
designed to (旨在)是题干aim(目标)的同义改写，本句指出这些社会救济项目旨在减少不平衡(reduce
inequality)并且打破贫穷的循环(break the cycle of poverty)，由此可知答案选b帮助贫穷家庭变得更富裕(help poor
families to ger better off)。其他选项的表述均不符合题意，排除。
growth can be correlated with environmental
degradation),而保护环境有时候与更大的贫穷有关(environment is sometimes correlated with greater
poverty),由此可知答案选d，经济增长往往印发环境的退化(economic growth tends to cause environmental
program was affecting
as a historian who’s always searching for the text or the image that makes
us re-evaluate the past, i’ve become preoccupied with looking for photographs
that show our victorian ancestors smiling (what better way to shatter the image
of 19th-century prudery?). i’ve found quite a few, and — since i started posting
them on twitter — they have been causing quite a stir. people have been
surprised to see evidence that victorians had fun and could, and did, laugh.
they are noting that the victorians suddenly seem to become more human as the
hundred-or-so years that separate us fade away through our common experience of
of course, i need to concede that my collection of ‘smiling victorians’
makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast catalogue of photographic
portraiture created between 1840 and 1900, the majority of which show sitters
posing miserably and stiffly in front of painted backdrops, or staring absently
into the middle distance. how do we explain this trend?
during the 1840s and 1850s, in the early days of photography, exposure
times were notoriously long: the daguerreotype photographic method (producing an
image on a silvered copper plate) could take several minutes to complete,
resulting in blurred images as sitters shifted position or adjusted their limbs.
the thought of holding a fixed grin as the camera performed its magical duties
was too much to contemplate, and so a non-committal blank stare became the
but exposure times were much quicker by the 1880s, and the introduction of
the box brownie and other portable cameras meant that, though slow by today’s
digital standards, the exposure was almost instantaneous. spontaneous smiles
were relatively easy to capture by the 1890s, so we must look elsewhere for an
explanation of why victorians still hesitated to smile.
one explanation might be the loss of dignity displayed through a cheesy
grin. “nature gave us lips to conceal our teeth,” ran one popular victorian
saying, alluding to the fact that before the birth of proper dentistry, mouths
were often in a shocking state of hygiene. a flashing set of healthy and clean,
regular ‘pearly whites’ was a rare sight in victorian society, the preserve of
the super-rich (and even then, dental hygiene was not guaranteed).
a toothy grin (especially when there were gaps or blackened teeth) lacked
class: drunks, tramps, and music hall performers might gurn and grin with a
smile as wide as lewis carroll’s gum-exposing cheshire cat, but it was not a
becoming look for properly bred persons. even mark twain, a man who enjoyed a
hearty laugh, said that when it came to photographic portraits there could be
“nothing more damning than a silly, foolish smile fixed forever”.
31. according to paragraph 1, the author’s posts on twitter___
a. changed people’s impression of the victorians.
b. highlighted social media’s role in victorian studies.
c. re-evaluated the victorians’ notion of public image.
d. illustrated the development of victorian photography.
32. what does author say about the victorian portraits he has
a. they are in popular use among historians.
b. they are rare among photographs of that age.
c. they mirror 19th-century social conventions.
d. they show effects of different exposure times.
33. what might have kept the victorians from smiling for pictures in the
a. their inherent social sensitiveness.
b. their tension before the camera.
c. their distrust of new inventions.
d. their unhealthy dental condition.
34. mark twain is quoted to show that the disapproval of smiles in pictures
a. a deep-root belief.
b. a misguided attitude.
c. a controversial view.
d. a thought-provoking idea.
35. which of the following questions does the text answer?
a. why did most victorians look stern in photographs?
b. why did the victorians start to view photographs?
c. what made photography develop slowly in the victorian period?
d. how did smiling in photographs become a post-victorian norm?
【正确答案】31. a 32.b 33.d 34. a 35. a
31. 具体信息题。根据题干关键词the author’s posts on
studies，也未曾提到c选项中的the victorians’ notion of public
32. 具体信息题。根据题干关键词victorian portraits he has collected定位到文章第二段句①逗号前的部分… my
collection of ‘smiling victorians’ makes up only a tiny percentage of the vast
catalogue of photographic portraiture created between 1840 and
33. 具体信息题。根据题干关键词in the 1890s和kept the victorians from smiling for
pictures定位到原文第四段句② 逗号之后讲到so we must look elsewhere for an explanation of why
victorians still hesitated to
dignity displayed through a cheesy
34. 例证题。根据例子内容mark twain返回原文定位到第六段句②，作为例子它要证明的观点在句①，咧着嘴笑是下等阶层的体现，but之后讲到but
it was not a becoming look for properly bred
from the early days of broadband, advocates for consumers and web-based
companies worried that the cable and phone companies selling broadband
connections had the power and incentive to favor affiliated websites over their
rivals. that’s why there has been such a strong demand for rules that would
prevent broadband providers from picking winners and losers online, preserving
the freedom and innovation that have been the lifeblood of the internet.
yet that demand has been almost impossible to fill—in part because of
pushback from broadband providers, anti-regulatory conservatives and the courts.
a federal appeals court weighed in again tuesday, but instead of providing a
badly needed resolution, it only prolonged the fight. at issue before the u.s.
court of appeals for the district of columbia circuit was the latest take of the
federal communications commission (fcc) on net neutrality, adopted on a
party-line vote in 2017. the republican-penned order not only eliminated the
strict net neutrality rules the fcc had adopted when it had a democratic
majority in 2015, but rejected the commission’s authority to require broadband
providers to do much of anything. the order also declared that state and local
governments couldn’t regulate broadband providers either.
the commission argued that other agencies would protect against
anti-competitive behavior, such as a broadband-providing conglomerate like
at&t favoring its own video-streaming service at the expense of netflix and
apple tv. yet the fcc also ended the investigations of broadband providers that
imposed data caps on their rivals’ streaming services but not their own.
on tuesday, the appeals court unanimously upheld the 2017 order
deregulating broadband providers, citing a supreme court ruling from 2005 that
upheld a similarly deregulatory move. but judge patricia millett rightly argued
in a concurring opinion that “the result is unhinged from the realities of
modern broadband service,” and said congress or the supreme court could
intervene to “avoid trapping internet regulation in technological
in the meantime, the court threw out the fcc’s attempt to block all state
rules on net neutrality, while preserving the commission’s power to preempt
individual state laws that undermine its order. that means more battles like the
one now going on between the justice department and california, which enacted a
tough net neutrality law in the wake of the fcc’s abdication.
the endless legal battles and back-and-forth at the fcc cry out for
congress to act. it needs to give the commission explicit authority once and for
all to bar broadband providers from meddling in the traffic on their network and
to create clear rules protecting openness and innovation online.
36. there has long been concern that broadband provides would___
a. bring web-based firms under control.
b. slow down the traffic on their network.
c. show partiality in treating clients.
d. intensify competition with their rivals.
37. faced with the demand for net neutrality rules, the fcc___
a. sticks to an out-of-date order.
b. takes an anti-regulatory stance.
c. has issued a special resolution.
d. has allowed the states to intervene.
38. what can be learned about at&t from paragraph 3?
a. it protects against unfair competition.
b. it engages in anti-competitive practices.
c. it is under the fcc’s investigation.
d. it is in pursuit of quality service.
39. judge patricia millett argues that the appeals court’s decision___
a. focuses on trivialities.
b. conveys an ambiguous message.
c. is at odds with its earlier rulings.
d. is out of touch with reality.
40. what does the author argue in the last paragraph?
a. congress needs to take action to ensure net neutrality.
b. the fcc should be put under strict supervision.
c. rules need to be set to diversify online services.
d. broadband providers’ rights should be protected.
【正确答案】36. c 37. b 38. b 39. d 40. a
winner and losers含义对应，故选【c】表明在对待客户中有偏袒行为。干扰排除:选项a中的web-based
instead of providing a badly needed
39. 具体信息题。根据题干关键词the appeals court’s decision 返回原文定位到第四段句①，而judge patricia
millett 的观点在第四段句②the result is unhinged from the realities of modern broadband